Prometheus: Vol 5, No 1 (1987)

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AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY BETWEEN THE WARS
J. Buckley-Moran
Pages: 5-28

ABSTRACT

This paper is concerned with the early development of Australia‘s industrial technology infrastructure. It will attempt, in an exploratory rather than conclusive way, to establish a somewhat different perspective on the institutional development of science and technology in Australia. By drawing on a specific case study — the power struggle between the Munitions sector and CSIR — it is argued that industrial R & D became disconnected from the economic planning function of the State, and that under CSIR’s aegis IR & D became an item of conspicuous consumption rather than a strategic investment for secondary industry.

JUST ANOTHER PIECE OF PLASTIC FOR YOUR WALLET: THE ‘AUSTRALIA CARD’ SCHEME
Roger Clarke
Pages: 29-45

ABSTRACT

During 1985–87 the Australian Government developed a proposal for a national identification scheme. With public concern about the scheme’s implications increasing, the Australia Card Bill was defeated in the Senate in November 1986 and again in April 1987. This paper outlines the proposal, and comments on its technical features, its economics, its implications and its prospects.

INNOVATION AND HEALTH EXPENDITURES: SOME EMPIRICAL RESULTS FOR A DIAGNOSTIC TECHNOLOGY
D.P. Doessel
Pages: 46-62

ABSTRACT

There is debate on whether the adoption of new medical technologies has been a contributing factor to rising health expenditures. This literature is critically reviewed and another approach is advocated. This alternative approach rests on the distinction between product and process innovations. It is argued that the relationship between innovations and health expenditures can be illuminated, for process innovations, by determining if they are used as substitutes. The empirical results provide no indication that alternative technologies for diagnosing diseases/conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been utilised by Australian medical practitioners, operating on a fee-for-service basis, as substitutes. The study provides new empirical support for the view that medical innovations contribute to rising health expenditures.

AUSTRALIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY — THIRD TIME LUCKY
D.H. Solomon & T.H. Spurling
Pages: 63-72

ABSTRACT

The title of this paper “Australian Manufacturing Industry — Third Time Lucky?” carries with it the implication that Australia has had two previous attempts at establishing a manufacturing industry in which we failed to achieve the success we desired. We will examine some of the historical and economic reasons for this failure and use this analysis to indicate how we can establish a viable export-oriented manufacturing industry in Austrailia.

PATENT REFORM IN AUSTRALIA
D. McL.Lamberton
Pages: 73-91

ABSTRACT

To foster discussion this paper reproduces, with the permission of the Minister‘s office, the statement by the Minister for Science when releasing the Government’s response to the report of the Industrial Property Advisory Committee on patent reform in Australia, together with the official detailed comparison of IPAC recommendations and that response.

INVENTION AND INNOVATION IN AUSTRALIA: THE HISTORIAN’S LENS
Ann Moyal
Pages: 92-110

ABSTRACT

There is a strong body of opinion that Australia‘s present technological achievement and poor attitudes to high technology development remain essentially ’colonial‘. This notion is a misconception. An overview study of some 100 inventors, technologists, and entrepreneurs indicates that vigorous attitudes to innovation prevailed in the Colonies in the nineteenth century and established for Australia some significant technological leads. Lessons from these attitudes both underline the continuing importance of the ’lone inventor’ and hold relevance for education, management, and technology policies today.

THE EVOLVING TECHNOLOGY OF VERMIN CONTROL IN COLONIAL AUSTRALIA
Jack Thompson & John Perkins
Pages: 111-123

ABSTRACT

Settlers in colonial Australia resorted initially to traditional methods of vermin control inherited from Europe, namely, trapping and hunting. The magnitude of the problem required eventually the development of novel, more sophisticated and considerably more costly technologies.

TRADE UNIONS, NEW TECHNOLOGY, AND INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY IN AUSTRALIA
Ray Markey
Pages: 124-145

ABSTRACT

Internationally, two basic strategies have been adopted for the macro-management of the industrial relations issues arising from recent technological change. The first has been one of tripartite consultative planning, whereas the second has allowed ‘market forces’ a free hand in determining the nature of technological change in industry. Since 1983 Australia has begun to shift from the second to the first approach, because of changes in the political and legal climate, and in the strategy of the ACTU and some important unions. Nevertheless, the impact of these changes is gradual.

Review article
POLICY AND ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE IN THE ARTS IN AUSTRALIA
Sonia S. Gold
Pages: 146-154

Review article
A NEO-CLASSICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE ON URANIUM FOR NUCLEAR POWER
D. P. Doessel
Pages: 155-163

Review article
FOOD IRRADIATION
T.D. Mandeville
Pages: 164-167

Book review
The Political Economy of Science & Technology by Norman Clark (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1985) pp.xii + 257, £8.95, ISBN 0-631-14293-2
Gerhard Rosegger
Pages: 168-170

Book review
Technology, Economic Growth and the Labour Process by Phil Blackburn, Rod Coombs and Kenneth Green (Macmillan, London, 1985), pp.xiv+239, £27.50., ISBN 0-333-37496-7
J.L. Enos
Pages: 170-173

Book review
Technological Innovation: Strategies for a New Partnership, edited by Denis O. Gray, Trudy Solomon and William Hetzner. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1986) pp.ix +333, ISBN 044470033 I
Fred Jevons
Pages: 173-175

Book review
Structured Chaos: The Process of Productivity Advance by Richard Blandy, Peter Dawkins, Ken Gannicott, Peter Kain, Wolfgang Kasper and Roy Kriegler. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1985) pp.viii+ III, $8.95, ISBN 0-19-554687-3
D.E. Lewis
Pages: 175-178

Book review
Telecommunications in the Information Age: A Nontechnical Primer on the New Technologies, Second Edition by Loy A. Singleton (Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1986: first published 1983) pp. x + 256, US$52.95, ISBN 0-88730-098-7
Chee-Wah Cheah
Pages: 178-181

Book review
Trade Wars: The High Technology Scandal of the 1980s, by Kevin Cahill (W.H. Allen, London, 1986) pp. 202, e 12.95, ISBN 0-491-03095-9
Stuart Macdonald
Pages: 181-183

Book review
The Australian Aerospace Industry: Structure, Performance and Economic Issues, by the Bureau of Industry Economics (BIE), Research Report 20. (AGPS, Canberra, 1986) pp. xxvi+425, ISBN 0-644-04816-6
Peter Liesch
Pages: 183-186

Book review
Commercial Media in Australia: Economics, Ownership, Technology, and Regulation by Allan Brown (University of Queensland Press, 1986) pp.xii + 240, $50, ISBN 07022 1839 I
Jeremy Tunstall

Pages: 186-188

Book review
The Knowledge Industry in the United States, 1960–1980 by Michael R. Rubin and Mary Tyler Huber with Elizabeth Lloyd Taylor (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1986) pp.xvi+213, $40.00, ISBN 0-69I-04235-7
D. McL. Lamberton
Pages: 188-190

Book review
Science and Technology Policy in the 1980s and Beyond edited by Michael Gibbons, Philip Gummett and Bhalchandra Udgaonkar (Longman, London, 1984) pp.xxvi +346, ISBN 0-582-90200-2
Clem Tisdell
Pages: 190-192

Book review
The Economics of Information Technology by Paul Jowett and Margaret Rothwell. (Macmillan, London, 1986) pp.xiv+ 108, £27.50, ISBN 0-333-39421-6
Colin Aislabie
Pages: 192-195

Book review
A Dictionary of Communication and Media Studies by James Watson and Anne Hill. (Edward Arnold, London, 1984), p.186, ISBN 0-7131-6411-5
John Short
Pages: 195-196

Book review
Planning the Electronic Office by John Whitehead (Croom Helm, London, 1985) pp.175, ISBN 0-7099-3621-4
Peter Graham
Page: 197

Book review
Cities and the Wealth of Nations: Principles of Economic Life by Jane Jacobs. (Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1986.) pp.257, $9.95, ISBN 1-14-022677-X
Joan Vipond
Pages: 198-199

Book review
Made in Japan: Akio Morita and Sony by Akio Morita with Edwin M. Reingold and Mitsuko Shimomura (Collins, London, 1987) pp. viii+309, $29.95, ISBN 0-00-217760-9
Edward Wheeler
Pages: 199-201

Shorter Notices

New Directions for Western Australia’s Economy by Mal Bryce (Office of the Deputy Premier and Minister for Industry and Technology, 32 St. George’s Terrace, Perth, 6000) pp.76
Page: 202

Bone Mineral Assessment and Osteoporosis by the National Health Technology Advisory Panel (Commonwealth Department of Health, Canberra, 1986) pp. vi + 39 ISBN 0-642- I 1044-I
Page: 202

Surgical Stapling by the National Health Technology Advisory Panel (Commonwealth Department of Health, Canberra, 1986) pp. vi + 39 ISBN 0-642- I 1044-I
Page: 202

Miscellany

NEWS
Page: 203