Prometheus: Vol 35, No 1 (2017)

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Editorial
By Stuart Macdonald page: 1 - 2 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 35, Issue 1 SKU: 0810-90281396755
Paper
By Mariano Zukerfeld The aim of this paper is to reexamine some typologies of knowledge as a means of framing the presentation of our own typology, which arises from a particular theoretical framework – cognitive materialism. In a somewhat arbitrary route through the economics of innovation, organizational and management studies, the typologies of Lundvall, Machlup, Mokyr, Spender, Blackler and Chartrand are reviewed and criticized. Then, picking up on some elements which arise from the previous analysis, the proposal of a cognitive materialist typology is introduced, based on distinguishing types of knowledge on the basis of the material medium or bearer in which they exist. A division into four types is suggested: knowledge with a biological, subjective, inter-subjective and objective bearer, each with its own respective sub-types. page: 3 - 20 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 35, Issue 1 SKU: 0810-90281357259
Paper
By Olof Hallonsten The third sector of national innovation systems comprises non-academic, publicly owned R&D organizations that complement universities and private-sector firms and are normally called ‘research institutes’. Scholarly attention to these organizations has been scarce, partly a consequence of the theoretical imbalance in favor of conceptualizations of innovation processes as requiring mainly universities, private-sector firms, and governmental authorities to occur and succeed. Similarly, while this third sector often makes up a significant share of national innovation systems, it receives less attention in national research and innovation policy than do, say, universities. This paper argues that the role(s) and function(s) of third sector research institutes deserve to be mapped and analyzed in greater detail in order to understand how various organizational actors interact to produce innovation. From a comprehensive literature review and basic analysis of three institute groups in three Nordic countries, the paper makes a first preliminary analysis of the topic. While this analysis yields some interesting conclusions, its main function is to point the way for future studies. In these, other actors in the system should be investigated in thorough empirical studies, armed with tools from classic sociological systems theory that enhance the conceptual strength of the innovation systems framework and enable the acknowledgement of the role(s) and function(s) of several important organizational actors, not least research institutes. page: 21 - 35 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 35, Issue 1 SKU: 0810-90281362830
Paper
By Louis Sanzogni Knowledge management (KM) has matured to the point that many organisations either believe they have such practices in place or at least understand they are relevant to the knowledge work commonly undertaken in many industries. What is lacking from the literature, however, is a solid foundation for the philosophies underpinning KM and particularly for how tacit knowledge informs the KM space. Research over decades shows tacit knowledge underpins all other forms of knowledge, enabling the interpretation and judicious application of knowledge, leading (at its highest levels) to the concept of wisdom. As an academic discipline, artificial intelligence (AI) was established before KM, has been grounded in the computing discipline for many decades, and is applied broadly in many domains. This paper explores how AI can inform the KM debate. Rather than simply provide examples of AI success stories as applied to KM in practice, it explores the theoretical and practical limitations of AI and KM in unison, providing at the same time a strong epistemological understanding of both disciplines as a means of furthering the knowledge debate, with particular emphasis on the role of tacit knowledge within this jurisdiction. page: 37 - 56 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 35, Issue 1 SKU: 0810-90281364547
Paper
By J. E. Elliott Much has been written about the remarkable rise of global university rankings from their initial appearance in the Academic Ranking of World Universities (Shanghai) tables in 2003. The examination of all things rankings, however, has arguably outpaced its conceptual uptake. This paper addresses this imbalance by reviewing prestige audits as resource management tools and status allocation measures. The paper argues that audit ambition has courted audit failure in both dimensions. The resource management justification underestimates the challenge of devising reliable proxy variables across international higher education sectors, organizational types, and disciplinary/departmental objectives. Evidential data sets are duly recast as data narratives that compete with each other and cloud the ordinal clarity aspired to in ranking tables. The status competition approach generates Matthew effects and encourages factor gaming. Positional goods investments are also socially and economically wasteful. In either strict (rigid) or relaxed (normed) form, finally, their zero-sum logic fails to account for private and public externalities. The paper closes with an appeal to soft-variable evaluations in higher education contexts as well as to closer scrutiny of the vocabulary informing both quantitative and qualitative assessments. page: 57 - 73 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 35, Issue 1 SKU: 0810-90281366018
Paper
By Jason Potts A new economic model for the analysis of scholarly publishing – journal publishing in particular – is proposed that draws on club theory. The standard approach builds on market failure in the private production (by research scholars) of a public good (new scholarly knowledge). In this model, publishing is communication, as the dissemination of information. But a club model views publishing differently: namely as group formation, where members form groups in order to confer externalities on each other, subject to congestion. A journal is a self-constituted group, endeavouring to create new knowledge. In this sense, a journal is a club. The knowledge club model of a journal seeks to balance the positive externalities of a shared resource (readers, citations, referees) against the negative externalities of crowding (decreased prospect of publishing in that journal). A new economic model of a journal as a knowledge club is elaborated. We suggest some consequences for the management of journals and financial models that might be developed to support them. page: 75 - 92 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 35, Issue 1 SKU: 0810-90281386949