Prometheus: Vol 32, No 3 (2014)

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By Stuart Macdonald page: 221 - 222 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 32, Issue 3 SKU: 0810-90281055070
By Stuart Macdonald page: 223 - 225 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 32, Issue 3 SKU: 0810-90281055072
By Keith W. Glaister A review of the literature indicates that the contribution of management to economic growth has been largely obscured in theory and ignored in empirical work. In contrast, the place of the entrepreneur in the process of growth is well recognised and widely accepted. The main goal of this paper is to develop an argument for the place of management in the process of growth, and to maintain that in the modern free market economy management’s role is at least as important as that of the entrepreneur. Routine innovation in established firms is emphasised as a fundamental, normal part of management activity, and as such highlights the importance of management for economic growth. However, management is not homogeneous and the actions of managers differentially affect the performance outcomes of firms. Hence the quality of management, and the adoption of appropriate management practices, matters and directly impacts economic growth. In recognising that management makes a significant contribution, both in terms of ensuring efficiency in the use of factor inputs and effectiveness in terms of driving incremental innovation, new research is necessary at the firm level in order to develop this understanding. page: 227 - 244 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 32, Issue 3 SKU: 0810-90281023646
By Hans-Jürgen Engelbrecht Many governments are going ‘beyond GDP’ to measure standards of living and to base policy on such wider considerations. One of the more advanced approaches is the used by the New Zealand Treasury as a complementary input into the policy process. This paper uses the as a case study to highlight shortcomings and unresolved theoretical and empirical issues in the underlying theoretical model (i.e., the capital approach to development based on mainstream neoclassical economics). In particular, innovation is noticeable mostly by its absence, despite being the main driver of living standards in the long-run. It is argued that innovation should be at the centre of the. Moreover, one must go beyond standard welfare analysis and use a model of the innovation–subjective wellbeing nexus in order to assess the many, potentially very complex, wellbeing implications of innovation. Adoption of such a perspective, although currently resisted by many policy makers, seems to fit well with the ‘normative turn’ in innovation economics. It does not make one a neo-Luddite. Instead, adoption might help overcome resistance to innovation. This should be especially important at a time when the spread of digital technologies is forecast to cause major societal disruptions. page: 245 - 263 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 32, Issue 3 SKU: 0810-90281009234
By Andreas Pyka Innovation policy is in need of a rationale which allows for the design and evaluation of policy instruments. In economic policy, focus has traditionally been placed on market failures, and efficiency measures have been used to decide whether policy should intervene and which instrument should be applied. In innovation policy, this rationale cannot be meaningfully applied because of the uncertain and open character of innovation processes. Uncertainty is not a market failure and cannot be repaired. Inevitably, policy makers are subject to failure and their goals cannot pragmatically be represented by a social optimum. In eschewing the concept of ‘optimal innovation’, avoiding evolutionary inefficiencies becomes central to analysis and to innovation policy making. Superimposed on the several sources of evolutionary inefficiencies are so-called ‘network inefficiencies’. Because of the widespread organization of innovation into innovation networks, network structures and dynamics give useful hints for where and when innovation policy should intervene. page: 265 - 279 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 32, Issue 3 SKU: 0810-90281011877
By Don Kerr This paper explores end-user perceptions of poorly implemented enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) from the perspective of a primary frontline user. This exploration analyses three case studies – from Australia, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Through these cases, we find three areas of concern: the reaction of implemented systems to existing work processes; the suspicion among workers that management has a hidden agenda in implementing an ERP system; and the perception that the implemented system is poorly aligned and leads to process duplication. The objective of this research is to see how ERP implementations have consequences that go beyond current research which, in the main, frames ERPs in a positive light and does not critically evaluate them. Our research demonstrates that, while major work groups in an organisation may appear to accommodate the ERP implementation, many individuals are very concerned about how the ERP disrupts their work. Our research demonstrates that there may be ‘dark’ consequences arising from an ERP implementation. These are likely to include unauthorised software development to fit previous work processes, confusion and little understanding of the new business processes. The result is an overall lack of trust in the efficacy of the system. page: 281 - 295 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 32, Issue 3 SKU: 0810-90281017247
By Larry Crump Market efficiency is essential in a world of scarce resources, but it is a secondary concern if human survival depends on a market that can provide reliable agricultural supply. For example, the projected increase in the frequency, magnitude and severity of extreme weather events (as increasing CO emissions make the world warmer) has profound implications for the reliability of the multilateral agricultural market. Market reliability is assumed to be embedded in supply and demand price transmission, although this assumption may not hold in a changing climate. This paper examines these concerns and makes recommendations to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and to leaders of national governments about rethinking the balance between interdependence on a multilateral agricultural market and national independence (not self-sufficiency) based on development of multiple food delivery systems to protect against periodic agricultural price shocks. Once established, via the WTO Doha round, a non-distorted multilateral agriculture market will become the primary global food security system, but national governments may also wish to examine a range of secondary food security systems. page: 297 - 318 Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation Volume 32, Issue 3 SKU: 0810-90281028192